viernes, 19 de octubre de 2007

TEJIDO CARTILAGINOSO.








Se consideran tejidos conectivos altamente especializados. Son tejidos de sostén, que se caracterizan por su resistencia a la tracción y presión. Constituyen el armazón de la mayoría de los vertebrados. Enel hombre, el esqueleto embrionario es inicialmente cartilaginoso y luego es reemplazado por hueso. No obstante persiste cartílago en algunos lugares (nariz, orejas, bronquios, etc. )
Cartílago

El cartílago NO posee vasos sanguíneos ni terminaciones nerviosas (excepto en las articulaciones). Las células se nutren por difusión desde el pericondrio (una capa de tejido conectivo que lo recubre).El cartílago está formado por células, fibras y sustancia fundamental amorfa, al igual que los otros tejidos conectivos (el cartílago ES UN TEJIDO CONECTIVO ESPECIALIZADO).


Las células que constituyen al cartílago son los CONDROCITOS. Son células que se tiñen un poco basófilas con H&E (son violaceas o azules, pero muy pálidas), que se encuentran ubicados en lagunas de matriz cartilaginosa, llamadas CONDROPLASTOS. mirá:




Si escucharon hablar de Condroblastos y Condrocitos, no son células diferentes, sino las mismas, pero en diferente estadío metabólico (celulas más "viejas"[citos] y células jóvenes [blastos])
Matriz cartilaginosa: En los preparadas de H&E la matriz presenta un aspecto homogéneo, debido al colágeno tipo II que se encuentra en fibrillas. La matriz está formada además por sustancia fundamental amorfa: 75% H2O, proteínas y CONDROITIN SULFATOS (es fácil y en un parcial suena bien ).

Pericondrio: Es la "cápsula" (así entre comillas) que rodea al cartílago. Se lo puede dividir en dos zonas:

El PERICONDRIO FIBROSO, constituido por tejido conectivo denso, rico en fibras colágenas; i el preicondrio CONDROGENO, que es donde se encuentran las células PROGENITORAS que se diferencian en condroblastos y que son los responsables del crecimiento APOSICIONAL del cartílago (CRECE DEL PERICONDRIO HACIA ADENTRO, CRECE EN GROSOR; EL CRECIMIENTO INTERSTICIAL SE DA POR DIVISION MÍTÓTICA DE LOS CONDROCITOS EXISTENTES ).

Osificación : El crecimiento en largo de los huesos se realiza en forma acelerada hasta la pubertad, y luego en forma lenta hata los 20-25 años, cuando cesa. El cartílago de crecimiento está ubicado en la metáfisis de los huesos (entre la epífisis y las diáfisis) y representa el lugar donde se produce el crecimiento en largo.
Presenta una serie ordenada de cambios, que generalmente te la muestran en un preparado ( y doy fe de qe lo toman ¬¬ )

De la epífisis a la diáfisis:


I. Zona de cartílago de reserva: El cartílago de leve crecimiento, poca multiplicacion celular.


II. Zona de proliferación: Las células se dividen a expensas de una célula madre, se forman los GRUPOS ISOGENOS (varios condrocitos resultantes de la division, dentro de una misma laguna). Los condrocitos se ubican en hileras, lo que le da el aspecto de "pilas de monedas" según la imaginación de algunos profesores.


III. Zona de Hipertrofia: Se detiene la proliferación celular, pero aumenta el tamaño de las células. Estos condrocitos poseen gran cantidad de glucógeno y fosfatasa alcalina.


IV. Zona de Calcificación: Por acción de las fosfatasas se produce el depósito de sales de calcio en la sustancia fundamental amorfa, lo que determina el comienzo de la degeneración de las células cartilaginosas (por falta de nutrición).


V. Zona de eliminación del cartílago: Los condrocitos degeneran y mueren. Las lagunas aumentadas de tamaño son invadidas por capilares y células osteoprogenitoras. éstas se diferencian a osteoblastos y se unen a la superficie de las trabéculas cartilaginosas y depositan sobre ellas una capa de matriz ósea.

Acá lo ven:



Cartílago Elástico: Se caracteriza porque su matriz, además de fibras colágenas, presenta gran cantidad de fibras elásticas ramificadas. (orejas, epiglotis, trompa de Eustaquio, etc) http://usuarios.lycos.es/diegupis86/cartilago%20elastico.jpg

Cartílago Fibroso: Predominan las fibras colágenas, que no están enmascaradas por sustancia fundamental amorfa. Estas fibras presentan cierto ordenamiento, se ubican en hileras. Se encuentra en zonas donde se requiere resistencia a la tracción (discos intervertebrales por ejemplo) http://www.herrera.unt.edu.ar/bioingenieria/Temas_inves/Oseo/Image7.jpg

Cartílago Hialino: en base a él se realizó la descripcion del cartílago (superficies art., nariz, etc. ) http://www.herrera.unt.edu.ar/bioingenieria/Temas_inves/Oseo/Image5.jpg





26 comentarios:

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Muy bueno el blog. Por lo menos por mi parte doy las gracias ya que estaba buscando información para distinguir los tipos de cartilagos y por esos azares de la vida (de la web XD) lleguá acá, a tu blog.Me ha servido de sobre manera. Muchas gracias…

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hola queria saber:¿que es el tejido congrogeno?y el tejido indiferenciado?y ¿que significa vacualizar?
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